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This appendix explains characters written in the Old South Arabian script. Old South Arabian comprised a number of languages; the following are those that have been preserved in writing (the dates follow the so-called long chronology). More than 60 Minaic inscriptions (South Arabian script) carved in Dedan and its surroundings prove there was even a trading Minaic colony established in Dedan. It was used for about 1000 years, from roughly 600 bc, in Southern Arabia. Assamese and Bengali: বাংলা লিপি Both these languages have letters pointing to the left like ব (think Bengal tiger teeth), and both have squigglies like ল . The ಠ symbol is the Kannada letter for "t." Many of the other letters in this alphabet have the same "eyebrow" on the top. Here's a traditional horse: 馬. Tifinagh: This alphabet is used for writing Berber languages, which are spoken in the Sahara region. Think of that letter as resembling the A in Assamese. It looks rather like the Devanagari but it has a couple of letters that look like mechanical claws reaching down to grab something: ਲ (sounds like "l") and ਨ (sounds like "n"). On the basis of this large amount of material Fritz Hommel prepared a selection of texts in 1893 along with an attempt at a grammar. Ashur Cherry Collection. 30/04/2019 16/05/2019 Lakshmi Kothaneth Dialects, Inscritptions in Oman, South Arabian Script. PLUS, Pisa 2004. North Arabic á¹¢afaitic Script with West-Syriac Reading (In Syriac) Mar 26, 2020 03/20. The choice of the early Arabic script to commemorate them would have been, in itself, a powerful symbol of defiance. Subscribe today for less than $2 an issue. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p. 169, Sabaean inscription (C 325), dated 669 of the á¸¤imyarite era (=559 or 554 CE) (Leonid Kogan and, the Ancient South Arabian Monumental Script, Undeciphered -k language of ancient Yemen, http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf, "Origin and Classification of the Ancient South Arabian Languages", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_South_Arabian&oldid=992651688, Languages attested from the 8th century BC, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Other varieties such as the language of the tribe of RadmÄn, Votive inscriptions, which often preserve historical accounts of the events that led to the dedication, Inscriptions on buildings: give the names of the person who commissioned the work and the historical circumstances among other things, Inscriptions written for atonement or repentance, Literary texts: if large numbers of any such texts ever existed, they have been almost completely lost. It always looks as if it has been drawn freehand, even in computer typefaces, and as such has many round-ish but not exactly round shapes connected to straight-ish but not exactly straight lines. Chinese characters were designed to be written with straight or gently curving brush strokes, which means even something that depicts a circle is more like a box — here's the sun: 日. Cyrillic: Кириллица The Cyrillic alphabet, which is named after Saint Cyril, is used to write Russian, many (but not all) other Slavic languages, and quite a few non-Slavic languages, as well. Just keep an eye out for their signature looks — and maybe use one or two mental tricks to help you remember. Students normally begin to learn the grammar of Old South Arabian and then they finally read a few of the longer texts. It looks like a mixture of Latin and Greek letters, geometric symbols, and shapes from spatial intelligence tests. Old South Arabian. Tamil: தமிழ் எழுத்து முறை This language of Sri Lanka, South India, and elsewhere stands out for having some boxy letters alongside the loops. Tibetan: བོད་སྐད། This script uses a lot of curving downward strokes that can look like knife edges. This is by far the most common and best known language with a line across its top. The term "Ancient North Arabian" refers to all of the so-called South Semitic scripts except Ancient South Arabian (ASA). A pair of possible surviving Sayhadic languages is attested in Jabal RÄziá¸¥ and Jabal Fayfa in far north-west of Yemen, though the varieties of speech in neighboring areas have both Arabic and Sayhadic features, and it is difficult to classify them as either Arabic dialects with a Sayhadic substratum, or Sayhadic languages that have been restructured under pressure of Arabic. Other misleading shapes for English speakers include с, which is "s"; н, which is "n"; and р, which is "r" (it was based on the Greek alphabet, not the Latin one). There were a number of other Old South Arabian languages (e.g. The four main Sayhadic languages were: Sabaean, Minaeic (or Madhabic), Qatabanic, and Hadramitic. Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ Lao is the language of Laos. Jacques Ryckmans, Walter W. MÃ¼ller, Yusuf M. Abdallah: Textes du YÃ©men antique. South Arabian Script Transliterated Into East-Syriac Author: Ashur Cherry (Toronto, Canada) Topic: South Arabian. Arabic: الحروف العربية You probably recognize this flowing script, which is written from right to left. Khmer: អក្សរខ្មែរ Once we're east of Myanmar, we move from the alphabets with lots of circles to the ones with hooks or rings on their ends. No way you can be this stupid. Georgian: ქართული დამწერლობა This language of the Republic of Georgia (or "Sakartvelo" in their own language) has an alphabet that looks like it could be from South India. When written from left to right the characters are flipped horizontally (see the photo). The Ugaritic alphabet has been found in both North Semitic and South Semitic order, and so is marked with ââ. Some experts believe that the Phoenician script was derived from Arabic Musnad. Chinese: 汉字 The Chinese writing system is the most widespread writing system in East Asia. Ed. This pre-Islamic alphabet is also called Nabatean Arabic, because it evolved from the script used by the Nabateans, the once-powerful nation that built Petra and dominated the trade routes in the southern Levant and northern Arabia before being annexed by the Romans in the early 2nd century. Old South Arabian font family contains two types: Old South Arabian and Old South Arabian serif. Need a pun to remember it by? Marib is a font package dedicated to the Old South Arabian (Sabean) and to the Old North Arabian script. Example of Nabatean script to the god Qasiu. The unknown script and numerous incomprehensible words presented Sabaean studies with new problems, and to this day the wooden cylinders are not completely understood. But only Assamese has the triangle with a second line inside ৰ (standing for "r" like in English "rare"), and it uses it a fair bit. Need to study and document linguistic heritage. The Old South Arabian languages were originally classified (partly on the basis of geography) as South Semitic, along with Arabic, Modern South Arabian and Ethiopian Semitic; more recently however, a new classification has come in use which places Old South Arabian, along with Arabic, Ugaritic, Aramaic and Canaanite/Hebrew in a Central Semitic group; leaving Modern South Arabian and Ethiopic in a separate group. There are many languages in Indian and Southeast Asia that have distinctive writing systems, but they're all descended from the Brahmi script of some 2,300 years ago, and they all have the same general principle of a character standing for a consonant plus a vowel, with extra marks to specify what vowel. South Arabian Language The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula. Greek: EλληνικήYou can probably recognize Greek, especially since some of its letters are used in math and in fraternity names (α, β, θ, π, ψ…). Inscrits sur bois (Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain 43). Look for characters made up of combinations of circles, straight lines, and upward points. Two South Semitic alphabets are also included for comparison; these are marked with â. It is extremely distinctive, because it is written vertically, top to bottom, and with a line down the right side. Barbara JÃ¤ndl: AltsÃ¼darabische Inschriften auf Metall (Epigraphische Forschungen auf der Arabischen Halbinsel 4). The earliest inscriptions of Ethio-Semitic in Ethiopia and Eritrea date to the 9th century BC in Epigraphic South Arabian (ESA), an Abjad shared with contemporary kingdoms in South Arabia. Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE Hangul 1443 The Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian ð©£ð©¯ð©¬ð©µ ms3nd; modern Arabic: Ø§ÙÙÙ ÙØ³ÙÙÙØ¯â musnad) branched â¦ Bible-Lands-Museum-Yemen-2977.jpg 2,183 × 3,555; 703 KB Thai: อักษรไทย The Thai script is very similar to the Lao script — if you can read one, the other will be very easy to learn — but its lines are straighter. And you don't have to. Ricks: Lexicon of Inscriptional Qatabanian (Studia Pohl, 14), Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome 1989. The Week magazine tells you all you need to know about everything that matters. Ancient North Arabian (ANA) is a collection of scripts and possibly a language or family of languages (or dialects) related to Old Arabic that were used in north and central Arabia and south Syria from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE. Most of its letters have one tight little loop at the end, as though they're tied (Thai'd) to something. "ಠ ಠ what?" The delicate art of using linguistics to identify an anonymous author, Fox's Lou Dobbs berates Stephen Miller for the White House not jumping on Ted Cruz's Supreme Court offer, Arizona's Republican Party asks followers if they're willing to die to 'Stop the Steal', The post-Mitch McConnell GOP is going to be a carnival of madness. (Turkish used to be written with the Arabic script too, but now it uses a version of Latin.) Sinhala: සිංහල අකුරු This language of Sri Lanka has a syllabic script with curvy, curly letters, several of which look like variants of w swinging loops. If you think of eyebrows as expressing a candid opinion, think of it as a Kannada opinion. or "C'mere!". Ge'ez Script - History and Origins. South Arabian Script was typically known by the name of the then-dominant peoples in the Southern Peninsula. The last inscription of these languages dates back to 554 CE, 60 years before the appearance of Islam.. In: Stefan Weninger (Hrsg. Old South Arabian was written in the Old South Arabian script, a consonantal abjad deriving from the Phoenician alphabet. (Tomes 1-3) Aix-en-Provence, 1993 (Includes a grammar, a lexicon and a list of Minaean personal names), A. F. L. Beeston, M. A. Ghul, W. W. MÃ¼ller, J. Ryckmans: Sabaic Dictionary / Dictionnaire sabÃ©en /al-MuÊ¿dscham as-SabaÊ¾Ä« (Englisch-FranzÃ¶sisch-Arabisch) Louvain-la-Neuve, 1982, Joan Copeland Biella: Dictionary of Old South Arabic. Here's a simplified one: 马. Japanese: 日本語の表記体系The dead giveaway for Japanese is this character: の. History and Origins. But some recurring combinations of strokes will help you tell apart the three languages you're most likely to see in the Arabic script: If it has lots of parallel vertical lines, especially at the beginnings of words, it's probably Arabic; if it has lots of words ending in a stroke that swings out and then back below the line, especially کے, it's very likely Urdu; and if it has neither of those characteristics, but you often see a vertical line to the right of a cup with a dot over it (آن), it's probably Farsi (Persian). Telltale letters are those that look like m, n, and o with an attached blade ლ ღ დ (standing for "l", "gh", and "d") and one that looks like a carrot წ (standing for an ejective "ts"). Although the inscriptions from ancient South Arabia were already known by the 18th century, it was Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842) and his student Emil RÃ¶diger who finally undertook the deciphering of the script, actually independently of each other, in the years 1841/42. It is believed that the ancient script used by the people of Dedan â called Dedanitic â was derived from the Minaic script. It's round, which Chinese characters never are. Beeston finally proved that they did in fact constitute independent languages. Since these languages all have different sound systems to Arabic, they have added and modified characters that can tell you right away what language you're looking at — that is, if you're familiar with the Arabic script. Qatabanic, Marginal Qatabanic, Awsanite Inscriptions (Arabia Antica 2). (It stands for the sound "tsu."). Syrian scholar of the 19 th century, ShakÄ«b ´ArsalÄn shares this view. Peter Stein: Ancient South Arabian. The south Arabian script descends from the proto-sinaitic script and moved into northern Eritrea to form Ge'ez. Many characters look like they have heads, eyes, arms, or legs — you get a sense of it from this quote from Wikipedia: አማርኛ ፡ የኢትዮጵያ ፡ መደበኛ ፡ ቋንቋ ፡ ነው።. Burmese: The language of Myanmar (formerly Burma) has a script made mostly of open circles like a fancy jewelry chain, but the real giveaway is the big round-cornered boxes on some of them, which might look like they indicate capitals but actually indicate an added "y" sound. Direction of writing: usually right to left in horizontal lines, and sometimes left to right The transplanted script formed the roots of the Geez script of Ethiopia, which, in time and under presumably external influences, developed into a rich syllabary unlike any other Semitic script in history. One of the most important isoglosses retained in all four languages is the suffixed definite article -(h)n. There are however significant differences between the languages. AwsÄnian), of which very little evidence has survived, however. Japanese also has another character set, called katakana, which includes a character you have probably seen or even used without knowing where it came from: ツ. For instance, the universal Arabic writing typeface on computers is technically called Naskh. The Epigraphic South Arabian letters were used for a few inscriptions into the 8th century, though not any South Arabian language since DÊ¿mt. Learning Old South Arabic at least furthers the studentâs knowledge of the characteristics of Semitic by introducing him or her to a less well-preserved example of the group. The Sabaean lexicon contains about 2,500 words. (Ugaritic letters are given in two different fonts, Aegean and MPH 2B Damase. Ancient South Arabian script. It is usually written from right to left but can also be written from left to right. It's part of the hiragana character set, which is unique to Japanese. Armenian: Հայերենի այբուբեն The Armenian alphabet will probably look to you like it's made mainly of variations on upside-down and right-side-up versions of squared-off r, m, and n, with ascenders and descenders (so think of Armenian). 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