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During the Women’s March on Versailles—one of the Revolution’s earliest and most important events—thousands of people besieged the palace, demanding a more fair and favorable price of bread in Parisian markets. She also totally transformed the arboretum planted during the reign of Louis XV into what became known as the Hameau de la Reine. It was also used for large events, such as full-dress and masked balls. 336–339; Maral 2010, pp. The theater was reopened in 1957, in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The square shaped building, with each façade different, was a prototype of Neoclassicism in France. The central painting on the ceiling, by Charles de la Fosse, depicts the Sun Chariot of Apollo, the King's favorite emblem, pulled by four horses and surrounded by the four seasons. Charles X, King of France - FranÃ§ois GÃ©rardLe lien vers le site collection. The features closest to the Palace are the two water parterres, large pools which reflect the façade of the palace. , The hall was originally furnished with solid silver furniture designed by Le Brun, but these furnishings were melted down in 1689 to help pay for war expenses. One represented the royalty of France — the select few that lavished in luxury and riches, even as the state of their country grew worse and worse. Like other royal chapels, it had two levels: the King and family worshipped in the Royal Gallery on the upper level, while ordinary courtiers stood on the ground level. The collections of the Palace of Versailles bear witness to this defining period in French history.  The staircase was lit from above with a skylight – a fairly advanced quality for seventeenth century architecture and is thought to have played a symbolic role in the connection with the scenes of the kings heroism depicted by Le Brun.  These items were melted down in 1689 to contribute to the cost of fighting the Nine Years' War. , The King's bedchamber had originally been the State Drawing Room and had been used by Queen Marie-Theresa, but after her death in 1701 Louis XIV took it over to use as his own bedroom and died there on September 1, 1715. In 1722, when the King came of age, he moved his residence and the government back to Versailles, where it remained until the French Revolution in 1789. It replaced a botanical garden created by Louis XV, and consisted of twelve structures, ten of which still exist, in the style of villages in Normandy. Both suites had ceilings painted with scenes from mythology; the King's ceilings featured male figures, the Queen's featured females. The centerpiece is an enormous sculpted medallion of Louis XIV, on horseback, crossing the Rhine in 1672, created by Antoine Coysevox.  In the 1670s and 1680s, 10 million livres worth of solid silver furniture was commissioned to designs by Le Brun, including tubs for Louis XIV's orange trees, an 8 foot high sculpted throne, and a silver balustrade in the Salon of Mercury. It can be used without an Internet connection. But, faced with growing opposition, Louis-Philippe was eventually toppled by another revolution in February 1848.  The museum project largely came to a halt when Louis Philippe was overthrown in 1848, though the paintings of French heroes and great battles still remain in the south wing. The new theater was completed in time for the celebration of the wedding of the Dauphin, the future Louis XVI, and Archduchess Marie Antoinette of Austria. , The largest part of the garden is divided into geometric bosquets, compartment-like groves; eight on the north side of the garden, and six to the south. Successive presidents attempted to rally the nation around certain shared values: the MarseillaiseÂ became the national anthem, 14 July became a national holiday, and efforts were made to highlight the positive reforms of the French Revolution. This new regime was to be known as the July Monarchy. Thanks to the partnership between the Palace of Versailles and Google Arts & Culture, you can now visit the Palace of Versailles using virtual reality. In this surviving sketch the subjects are indeed naked, although David had apparently planned to add clothing later on. to. Mon, 15 February 2021. , When Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor of the French in 1804, he considered making Versailles his residence, but abandoned the idea because of the cost of the renovation. Almost 220 years later, the Golden Gate was restored to its former glory. It is on display in theÂ Gallery of Coaches, near the palace... or in your own home, thanks to our virtual tour: Charles Xâs coronation ceremony was grandiose but outdated, stoking the growing public unease that his rule represented an unwelcome return to the past.  Beyond the fountain, the Grand Canal extends 1800 meters to the south end of the park.  He also replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what became the most famous room of the palace, the Hall of Mirrors. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver balustrade used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example: II. , One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV and his successors spent on Versailles. The app includes the audioguide tour of the Palace and an interactive map of the Estate. The corridor and vestibule that connected the Chapel and the State Apartments included later art, commissioned by Louis XV, intended to portray the link between Divinity and the King: a statue of Glory Holding the Medallion of Louis XV, by Antoine Vassé; and Royal Magnanimity by Jacques Bousseau. On 12 July, the Assembly went into a non-stop session after rumours circulated he was planning to use the Swiss Guards to force its closure. The painting on the ceiling by François Lemoyne, Louis XV offering an olive branch to Europe, illustrates this theme. In the time of Louis XIV, even the palace, with its thousands of inhabitants, was continually short of fresh drinking water, necessitating the relocation of the court periodically to the palaces of Fontainebleau or Compiègne.  In 1681, construction commenced on the Machine de Marly at Bougival; the machine consisted of 14 paddle wheels powered by the currents of the Seine. The new wing was completed in 1780.. The storming … Those on display today were made in 1770 for the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, based on the moldings of earlier silver versions made by LeBrun that had been melted down. In this brand new short film, go behind the scenes of this historic occasion (English subtitles available).  They are the finest example of the jardin à la française, or the French formal garden. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. The Neptune Fountain was originally decorated only with a circle of large lead basins jetting water; Louis XV added statues of Neptune, Triton and other gods of the sea. The two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center. It took the place of the rooftop terrace overlooking the gardens which formerly connected the apartments of the King and Queen.  To relieve themselves, many courtiers had their own collapsible commode, known as a chaise percée, which was a padded seat with a chamber pot underneath. Other painters featured include Horace Vernet and François Gérard. Artist Horace Vernetâs depiction of that day portrays the French people united in their unanimous enthusiasm for this âsaviourâ of the Republic. After the Revolution, the Trianon served as a residence for both Napoleon I and later for King Louis-Philippe when they visited Versailles. The emperor abdicated, this time for good, and was exiled to the English-owned island of Saint Helena. The site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. , Accordingly, the silver balustrade, which contained in excess of one ton of silver, cost in excess of 560,000 livres. A monumental painting by Vernet features Louis Philippe himself, with his sons, posing in front of the gates of the Palace. On 31 July 1830 he left the Palais-Royal and headed for the HÃ´tel de Ville. Other notable groves include Les Dômes, the Bosquet d'Encelade (after Enceladus, c. 1675), the Théâtre d'Eau (Water Theater), and the Bains d'Apollon (Baths of Apollo). The military operation which suppressed the Commune at the end of May was directed from Versailles, and the prisoners of the Commune were marched there and put on trial in military courts. , The Petit Trianon was created between 1763 and 1768 by Ange-Jacques Gabriel for Louis XV. The constant wars between France and her neighbours weakened the Empire. Discover this painting in our video profile: However, less than four years after his election, the coup dâÃ©tat of 2 December 1851 transformed the presidency of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte into a new imperial regime. He instead took the title King of the French, breaking with established royal tradition. The Palace of Versailles was declared the official royal residence in 1682 and the official residence of the court of France on May 6, 1682, but it was abandoned after the death of Louis XIV in 1715. From being a royal sports hall during the reign of Louis XIV, it became synonymous with the foundation of French democracy and will be forever linked to a key episode in the French Revolution. The King defeated the plot and sent his mother into exile. Napoleon IIIâs reign nevertheless ran up against opposition from many quarters, not least Parisian literary circles. The private apartments of the king (the appartement du roi and the petit appartement du roi) and those of the queen (the petit appartement de la reine) remained in the château vieux (old château). Some of the objects in the collection are depicted in René-Antoine Houasse's painting Abundance and Liberality (1683), located on the ceiling over the door opposite the windows. Portraits of Louis XV and his Queen, Marie Leszczinska, by the Flemish artist Carle Van Loo decorate the room today. Concurrently, in the Soviet Union (Russia since 26 December 1991), the restoration of the Pavlovsk Palace located 25 kilometers from the center of Leningrad – today's Saint Petersburg – brought the attention of French Ministry of Culture, including that of the curator of Versailles. II. The walls of the apartments of the courtiers and lesser members of the royal family on the first floor (second floor U.S. style) were demolished, and turned into a series of several large galleries: the Coronation Room, which displays the celebrated painting of the coronation of Napoleon I by Jacques-Louis David; the Hall of Battles; commemorating French victories with large-scale paintings; and the 1830 room, which celebrated Louis-Philippe's own coming to power in the French Revolution of 1830. , In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne. When the King promenaded in the gardens, fountains were turned on only when the King was approaching them, and turned off after he departed. Some were highly formal, like Hardouin-Mansart's Bosquet de la Colonnade, with a circle of columns alternating with fountains, while others imitated nature. Hardouin-Mansart died in 1708 and so the chapel was completed by his assistant Robert de Cotte in 1710.. The Women's March on Versailles in October 1789 is often credited with forcing the royal court and family to move from the traditional seat of government in Versailles to Paris, a major and early turning point in the French Revolution. They occupied the main or principal floor of the château neuf, with three rooms in each apartment facing the garden to the west and four facing the garden parterres to the north and south, respectively. The Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, and decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. The gallery is more than 70 metres (230 ft) long, and it is lined with 17 wide arcaded mirrors, designed to match and reflect the windows opposite facing the gardens. After the addition of the Hall of Mirrors (1678–1684) the king's apartment was reduced to five rooms (until the reign of Louis XV, when two more rooms were added) and the queen's to four. Some are now decorated with contemporary works of art. Atop the mansard slate roof are elaborate dormer windows and gilt lead roof dressings that were added by Hardouin-Mansart in 1679–1681. This painting by Charles-Philippe LariviÃ¨re shows the "Triumphant Entrance into Paris of Louis-Napoleon Prince-President": Entrance of the Prince-President to Paris, 16 October 1852 - Charles-Philippe LariviÃ¨reLe lien vers le site collection. The bed is a replica of the original commissioned by King Louis-Philippe in the 19th century when he turned the Palace into a Museum. These were sources of continual stench, polluting nearby rooms and causing issues of blockage and sewage leaks from the iron and lead pipes which drained the privies on the upper floors. PALACE OF VERSAILLES The French Revolution began in 1789, as the people of France pushed to overthrow the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI. One of the most costly elements in the furnishing of the grands appartements during the early years of the personal reign of Louis XIV was the silver furniture, which can be taken as a standard – with other criteria – for determining a plausible cost for Versailles. The eight-foot high silver throne was melted down in 1689 to help pay the costs of an expensive war, and was replaced by a more modest throne of gilded wood. , During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, the Palace was occupied by the general staff of the victorious German Army. Napoleon III established an authoritarian regime which placed restrictions on certain liberties, but nonetheless received popular backing at the ballot box. When it chimes the hour, figures of Louis XIV and Fame descend from a cloud. In this painting, by Karl Girardet, you can see the open-top carriage of Queen Victoria arriving at the Queenâs Hamlet on the Trianon estate. Louis XVIII was the driving force behind the Charter of 1814, which many considered to be a compromise solution retaining certain progressive elements of the Revolution and the Empire, while also restoring the Bourbon dynasty to the throne. Not far from the Petit Trianon she had the Rock Pavilion constructed, and added the classical rotunda of the Temple of Love, built in 1777. On 18 Brumaire of the Year VIII (9 November 1799), a coup d'Ã©tat overthrew the Directory which had ruled France since 1795. But drained budget, affairs and political intrigues complicate things. Commemorating the centenary of the Estates General at the Neptune Fountain, 5 May 1889 - Alfred RollLe lien vers le site collection. However, the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 put an abrupt end to this optimistic era. The Dragon Fountain is one of the oldest at Versailles and has the highest jet of water, twenty-seven meters. WC1B 3RA . Following the defeat of Napoleon I at the hands of a coalition of European monarchies, the Bourbons were restored to the throne in the person of Louis XVIII (succeeded byÂ Charles X), establishing a system of constitutional monarchy now known as the Restoration period. In 1830, Louis-Philippe I became king. And so it remained until the French Revolution in 1789. When Napoleon came to power, he had an apartment created for himself in the Grand Trianon, complete with a map room.King Louis Philippe, in the museum he created, showcased … In 1814 Napoleon abdicated, paving the way for the ascension ofÂ Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, to the throne (see below); but he subsequently returned for a period known as the âHundred Days,â ruling from 1st March to 7 July 1815. In 1824 Charles X, brother of Kings Louis XVIII and Louis XVI, was the next member of the Bourbon dynasty to ascend to the throne as King of France. , The first phase of the expansion (c. 1661–1678) was designed and supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. Arcaded galleries with walls up to 16 ft. thick are built against the three retaining walls. Meal at the House of Simon the Pharisee by Veronese in the Salon of Hercules, The construction of the Hall of Mirrors between 1678 and 1686 coincided with a major alteration to the State Apartments. The furnishings and art of the Palace, including the furniture, mirrors, baths and kitchen equipment, were sold in seventeen thousand lots. Courtiers gathered in the Hall to watch the King walk from his apartments to the chapel, and sometimes took the occasion to present him with requests. A silk shoe that belonged to Marie Antoinette, the last queen of France who was executed during the French Revolution, will go up for auction on Sunday- with a … The work was intended to depict the deputies in action, in their contemporary garb.  Accordingly, much of the early funding for construction came from the king's own purse, funded by revenues received from his appanage as well as revenues from the province of New France (Canada), which, while part of France, was a private possession of the king and therefore exempt from the control of the Parliaments.  There was no fresh water tap above ground level until the reign of Louis XV, and even then it was limited to the King's private kitchen and his personal bathroom. One hundred years on from the French Revolution, as France entered the period now known as the âBelle Ãpoque,â a remarkable sense of enthusiasm, nostalgia, curiosity and excitement grew up around Versailles and the Ancien RÃ©gime. 129 21 March to Sr. Jehannot de Bartillay 4,970 livres 12 sols for the delivery to Sr. Lois and de Villers silversmiths for, with 136,457 livres 5 sol to one and 25,739 livres 10 sols to another, making the 38 balusters, 17 pilasters, the base and the cornice for the balustrade for the château of Versailles weighing 4,076 marc at the rate of 41 livres the marc[c] including 41 livres 2 sols for tax: 4,970 livres 12 sols. Apollo, the sun god, was the emblem of Louis XIV, featured in much of the decoration of the palace. Louis XVIII is shown here in a portrait by Jean-Baptiste Paulin GuÃ©rin: Louis XVIII, King of France - Paulin GuÃ©rinLe lien vers le site collection. Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, and the Charter of 1830 - Franz-Xaver WinterhalterLe lien vers le site collection.  In December 1689, to defray the cost of the War of the League of Augsburg, Louis XIV ordered all the silver furniture and articles of silver at Versailles – including chamber pots – sent to the mint to be melted.  In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north, south and west (the garden side) of the original château. This photograph shows French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, flanked by American President Woodrow Wilson, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour and Italian Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino, on the eve of the signature of the Treaty: Preparing to sign the Peace Treaty at Versailles - Agence TrampusLe lien vers le site collection. HonorÃ©-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau - Jean-Baptiste GibertLe lien vers le site collection. However, owing to Venetian proprietary claims on the technology of mirror manufacture, the Venetian government ordered the assassination of the artisans to keep the secrets proprietary to the Venetian Republic. Originally arranged for the use of the Marie-Thérèse, consort of Louis XIV, the rooms were later modified for use by Marie Leszczyńska and finally for Marie-Antoinette. When Napoleon abdicated he ascended to the throne as Louis XVIII, "by the grace of God, King of France and Navarre.â He is shown here ceremonially entering Paris by the Porte Saint-Denis on 3 May 1814: Ceremonial entrance of H.M Louis XVIII into Paris by the Porte Saint-Denis, 3 May 1814 - Pierre-Michel AlixLe lien vers le site collection. While the design used for the chambre du roi was, in fact, from the original design to decorate the chambre de la reine, it nevertheless represents a great achievement in the ongoing restoration at Versailles. In 1804 he proclaimed himself First Consul for life, the same year that he was crowned Emperor of the French under the regnal title Napoleon I. Napoleon I presented himself as the man to rebuild France after the bloody tumult which had gripped the country since 1789. , The uprising of the Paris Commune in March, 1871, prevented the French government, under Adolphe Thiers, from returning immediately to Paris. During the season from All-Saints Day in November until Easter, these were usually held three times a week, from six to ten in the evening, with various entertainments. , Le Brun also supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens. , As always, the royal family and high-ranking courtiers within the palace had superior hygienic arrangements at their disposal. This defeat forced Napoleon III to abdicate, bringing his reign to an end on 4 September 1870. It gave the revolutionaries confidence in the power of the people over the king. The scene painted by Roll was one of the first major, symbolic republican ceremonies held in France. The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), is perhaps the most famous room in the château of Versailles. In that month, the government of the new Third French Republic, which had departed Paris during the War for Tours and then Bordeaux, moved into the Palace. Learn more. A crowd of several thousand men and women, protesting the high price and scarcity of bread, marched from the markets of Paris to Versailles. It was partly for this reason that he decided to transform the Palace of Versailles, the former home of the Kings of France, into a museum dedicated to âall the glories of France" â as per the inscription still visible on the DufourÂ and Gabriel pavilions which flank the main palace. On the ceiling in a gilded oval frame is another painting by Houasse, Venus subjugating the Gods and Powers (1672-1681).  One of the more costly endeavours for the museum and France's Fifth Republic has been to repurchase as much of the original furnishings as possible. In the 19th Century King Louis-Philippe turned it into the Museum of the History of France. The Palace of Versailles found itself at the very heart of the revolution. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. , The bed of the King is placed beneath a carved relief by Nicolas Coustou entitled France watching over the sleeping King. Known as an "English Place" (Lieu à l'Anglaise), the flush toilet was supplied with water from an overhead tank and emptied into a ground level drain, preventing lingering odors. This painting by Jacques Bertaux depicts the struggle between the kingâs Swiss Guards and the sans-culottes.Â, Storming of the Tuileries Palace, 10 August 1792 - Jacques BertauxLe lien vers le site collection. They were bordered with high trees and carefully trimmed in cubic forms to resemble rooms with walls of greenery. It is difficult – if not impossible – to give an accurate rate of exchange between 1682 and today. , The Royal Chapel has been under renovation for 767 days. Mary Wollstonecraft at Versailles during the French Revolution. The courtiers could watch as he dined. Prior to his marriage with Marie-Louise in 1810, he had the Grand Trianon restored and refurnished as a springtime residence for himself and his family, in the style of furnishing that it is seen today. , The character of the "piss boy" in Mel Brooks' film History of the World: Part 1 is based on a real job at the palace. Versailles was the center not only of French political power but also of French fashion. The Peace Salon; Louis XV sharing benefits of peace by François Lemoyne, The Galerie des Glaces or Hall of Mirrors, Guerdirons or candle holders in the Hall of Mirrors, Relief of Louis XIV in the Salon of War, by Antoine Coysevox (1715). The Salon of Diana was used by Louis XIV as a billiards room, and had galleries from which courtiers could watch him play. He also set about conquering the rest of Europe, beginning with the Ulm Campaign of 1805. Read the reviews of your fellow travelers. Best price and money back guarantee! Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, tours, attractions, and venues in this location may be temporarily closed. The gardens and park were also enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours (1591–1637), and reached essentially the size they have today. After he became King in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, and in 1623-24 built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the curr… The current Chairperson of the Public Establishment is Catherine Pégard. The Tennis Court Oath, 20 June 1789 - Jacques-Louis DavidLe lien vers le site collection. Additionally, Louis XIV's granddaughter-in-law, Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, wife of the Petit Dauphin, occupied these rooms from 1697 (the year of her marriage) to her death in 1712.[b].  The following year Louis XV ordered the demolition of the north wing facing onto the Cour Royale, which had fallen into serious disrepair.  The aqueduct was intended to carry water by gravity from a high reservoir near the river, through the gardens of the Château de Maintenon, to Versailles. The most ornate façade, with Corinthian columns, faced the French landscape garden. UK: 0345 475 1815 USA (toll free): 1-877-381-2914 International: 00 44 1722 237795 firstname.lastname@example.org. Before entering the King's State Apartments, one had to climb the Ambassadors Staircase - a suitable entrance as its magnificence matched the grandness of the apartments. Artist EugÃ¨ne DevÃ©ria captured this historic scene in a painting which you can explore in the video below (english subtitles): Louis-Philippe, the "Citizen King,â sought to distance himself from both the preceding monarchy and the Republic. French Revolution Women's March on Versailles. For economy and speed, the new opera was built almost entirely of wood, which also gave it very high quality acoustics. 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